PART A: Twenty Vocabulary words. As you read the text above select 20 vocabulary words (minimum). You select the words new to you, or words used in a way new to you. List each word and then a definition that fits the usage of the word. Look up the definition in an academic dictionary (such as Oxford or Miriam Webster’s New Collegiate, but not Google.) Then write the definition IN YOUR OWN WORDS. Select as many vocabulary words as needed to fill up the requirement of 20.
PART B: Answer the following questions. Do NOT retype the question.
What does Spencer mean when he says “Man was supposed to be moulded after a manner somewhat akin to that in which a modeller makes a clay-figure”?
What does Spencer mean by “. . . . Our industrial organization, . . . . has become what it is, . . . . has arisen under the pressure of human wants and resulting activities . . . .”?
Who was Oliver Cromwell, and what new social condition did he try to build in England long ago? [Clue: check out the Wikipedia site for Cromwell, find out what his attempted revolution was supposed to achieve.]
Referring to great leaders like Cromwell, what does Spencer mean by ” . . . . the rapid revival of suppressed institutions and practices after his death, show how powerless is a monarch to change the type of the society he governs. He may disturb, he may retard, or he may aid the natural process of organization; but the general course of this process is beyond his control”?
Explain this statement by Spencer: “ . . . .Those who regard the histories of societies as the histories of their great men, and think that these great men shape the fates of their societies, overlook the truth that such great men are the products of their societies” ?
How can society by viewed as “. . . . a growth and not a manufacture“?
Who was Plato?
What is the central idea behind Plato’s model in his book The Republic? Explain the metaphor.
Who was Hobbes?
What is the major difference between Hobbes metaphor of society and that of Plato?
What is the error made by both Plato and Hobbes?
How can a civilized society evolve? [Clue: a civilization is a society that has progressed to the point of building cities. A city is literally a large human structure and habitation build around a market place, the market is key to the survival of the group. Ancient Latin CIVIS means ‘city” and CIVIS is the root of the English word civilization.]
What does Spencer mean when he says “. . . . this middle class is the analogue of the middle layer in the embryo“?
Explain this passage: “. . . . by degrees the Church has lost all civil jurisdiction. . . .“?
Consider: “. . . . with a nation we see that while, for governmental purposes, such divisions as counties and parishes still exist, the structure developed for carrying on the nutrition of society wholly ignores these boundaries. . . .“? What is the nutrition of society, and how does it ignore boundaries? What are the boundaries?
What does this passage mean? “. . . .in a society, great activity in some one direction causes partial arrests of activity elsewhere by abstracting capital, that is commodities: as instance the way in which the sudden development of our railway-system hampered commercial operations; or the way in which the raising of a large military force temporarily stops the growth of leading industries“? [Clue: think of cardiac arrest, heart attack. Then ask yourself how society could experience a heart attack.]
What is division of labor? [Clue: it is fine to consult Wikipedia for an answer like this.]
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